Aristotle: Theory of Rhetoric

Sometimes known as Rhetoric, The Art of Rhetoric or Treatise on Rhetoric, Aristotle’s Rhetoric is an ancient Greek treatise on the art of persuasion, and was introduced by the Greek philosopher Aristotle in the 4th century BC. It includes three forms, namely Ethos, Pathos and Logos.
Ethos is an appeal given off based on the characteristics or identity of the speaker, writer of promoter.
Examples where ethos is used:
  • Celebrity-endorsed products’ advertisements
  • Articles where a person has the right or authority to address the matter
Pathos appeals to the reader through the use of emotion. It often contains information or content which touches the reader’s heart and invokes feeling within the reader.
Examples where pathos is used:
  • Advertisements with emotional appeal
  • Motivational stories or fables
Logos is appeal based on logical reasoning and statistics, in other words, quantitative information.
Examples where logos is used:
  • Articles written by departments of Science or schools
  • Reports or work proposals


Rensselaer, Polytechnique. (n.d.). The art of rhetoric: learning how to use the three main rhetorical styles. Retrieved from